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INDIA IS A DEVELOPING COUNTRY, ITS ECONOMY AND GDP GROWTH IS BASED ON AGRICULTURE

             

I.Introduction: 

                   India could be a developing country and its economy relies on agriculture. It provides employment to regarding sixty fifth of the operating population of India. Around one-quarter of India’s value originates from the agricultural sector. it's however natural that the issues of farmers area unit addressed  with a way of urgency. Agriculture could be a state subject to the balk of public investment in agriculture that takes place at the extent of states as a catalyst. (Prasad C.S. “Agriculture and Rural  Development in India since 1947”)

        On the eve of independence in 1947, Indian agriculture was characterized by feudal land relations and primitive technology and the resultant low productivity per hector. As a consequence , rural India prevented a picture of mass poverty and widespread unemployment and employment. Therefore the first task of the government in the immediate post independence period was to initiate growth process in agriculture was required both in terms of technology and institutional changes(ibid)

       The scheme of economic development in India it basically refers the taking step to development and growth to agriculture sector. Since the independence period of India. Some notable development have accrued such as irrigation facilities, new crops technology and market economy, and the abolished some another problems or practices such as money lenders. Debtedness, land tenture, land reforms etc.

The process of planned economic development in India began with the lunching of the first five year plan on April 1, 1951.At that time, the Counting was faced with severe food shortage and mounting in faction. The plan accorded pride of place to programmes for agriculture and community development.

This Was a natural priority for the which sought to raises the standard of living in rural areas and cope with food shortages. Agriculture has occupied an important place in every successive plan (Ibid).India has produce verities of products to export and hence foreign exchange earnings. It has the sources of row materials for agro based industries also. Mainly Indian agricultural products are, rice, tea, coffee, sugar, tobacco etc. But there Is not a proper market with good prices and facilities also. The traditional marketing systems in India were exchanges goods or held once or twice per months for with the festivals.But today through the agriculture is the main factor of Indian farmers till today also they have not good marketing facilities also. They face many problems in this terms. In this study try to focuses the marketing problems of rural formers.

 

 

II. Survey of Literature

 According to the newspaper

 “The Economic Times” ----

228 farmers in the six identified suicide prove districts of Vidarbha region commited suiced due to agrian distress, during last ten months till January 1, 2013.

 Farmers suicide in India it is not new concept but in form of before some years, it has been increased with the high rate of percentage.

 Gupta and Maiti, explain the main reason of agrarian distress there are too much dependent on nature, predominance of small cultivators and low productivity.(Gupta and Maiti Rural development in the India)

 

 In another way Prasad shekhar mention some problems which is faced by rural farmers in their marketing problems, there are like as the probity for their the rural farmers has the credit facilities of the time of harvest so they couldn’t produce the products at the right time, soon after the harvest the prices of agriculture products are relatively law. In another way he mentioned the transport facilities warehousing. Scientific storage facilities and also inadequate facilities (Prasad C.S. “Agriculture and Rural Development in India since 1947”)

In the another book of verma, Singh and Jeloka, they said that thre is an urgent need to institutionalize the refined structure and functions of existing system, (Verma it all “Rural Development Reforms”)

 

       In Indian agriculture economy there is some important factors, by which the Indian agricultural economy facing the inadequacy marketing system, there are marketing problems seasonal demands, transportation and also communication.

 

  III. Significance of the study :

 Rural Society is mainly depend in agriculture played a vital role in the life of rural farmers. But their socio economic condition is not very good because of absence of agricultural sufficient knowledge technology and sustainable and also satisfactory a market.Rural farmers are doing hard work in their agricultural field and activities they produced various agricultural goods which is most important for us and everyone. But what is the condition of the productive goods.All are natural and some are manmade. Government is not concern for these kind of situation. They are not able to arrange and give a proper market and better price to formers. But the result of the globalization they accepted the imports goods which is basically coming from another countries also.

Another way the failure of the agricultural occupation to living a better life, there is no one option to living a better life, there is no one optional role for farmers in rural society in because of their literacy, capability etc. in this way now we seen the importance of the study in rural agricultural marketing problems of farmers. In this study have the own significant in the rural society.

 

 

 

IV. Objectives of the study: -

 

This study is based on some specific objectives these are:

 1.To know about the farmers economics conditions

 2.To know about the farmers marketing problems.

 3.what is the impact of marketing problems into farmers family.

 

 

V. Methodology:

 A adequate methodology was followed to meet the objectives of this study. The design of the research was descriptive by nature, therefore no hypothesis was formulated. As many thirty experienced farmer of these villages were considered respondents for the study.

 

Study area:-

The proposal study will be conduct in three villages under the Boloma Gaon Panchayat Teok, Jorhat district of Assam. The district is situated in Upper Assam. The distrcts consists three sub division-Tetabar. Mariane and Majuli and eight development blocks. The total area of the districts is 2851 sq.km. According to the 2011 census report the district has 1091295 Population is 383 per sq.km. population growth rate  over the decade 2001-2011 was 9.21% sex ratio is 956 female for every 1000 male and literacy rate is 83.42% (census Report 2011) The total scheduled caste population in Assam as per 1991 census was 1659412 and among these population 7.61% reside in jorhat district.

 

 

 

 

Brief description of the field:

 The study is conducted in three villages under the Boloma gaon Panchayat, Teok. Jorhat district of Assam. These villages are, Moran Gaon, Tipamia Gaon and Ghain Gaon. Among the three villages the Ghain Gaon is comparatively small than the other two villages and the density of population of the village is too low and all are engaged with cultivation in predominantly. The other two village are comparatively wide agriculture because of various causes and some are engaged with self sufficient business like as small shopkeeper, workers in the town to sell sweets, juice and some are getting job in other place, someone has firms and animal husbandry.

 

 The total household of the village of Tipomia is 25 and Moran gaon has 30 of household and Gohain gaon has 13 of households.In these three villages, there main occupation is agricultural farmers and they are basically produced rice, tea and vegetables.

 

Tools and Techniques of Data Collections

Source and types of Data

The proposed study will utilized both the types of data primary and Secondary. The primary data will be collected from the field and respondents through structured interview scheduled and also through observation technique, Secondary data will be collected from various sources like books, newspaper, articles etc.

Universe and Units of the Study 

Three villages of Jorhat district is the universe of study and thirty experienced farmers will be the unit of the study.

 Delimitation of the study

The study is demelimited to three villages of jorhat district of Assam namely Moran Gaon, No Tipomia gaon and Gohain gaon.  under east Block (Kaliapani).

 Farmer Socio-Economic Condition

 In this study ,farmers socio-economic condition  is based on their incomes. In the following table shows that the farmers rate of monthly income:-

 Table No.1 Monthly income of the respondents

 Sl No Monthly Income Number of respondents percentage   

1                  200000                  10                                      10%   

2                    10000                  10                                      10%   

3                      5000                  10                                      10%

 

 

 

 

 

I. In this above table shows that the income hierarchy rate of among the farmers .The monthly income rate is high to 10% of farmers and also lowest rate is 10% of farmers. Higher-lower income rate is dependent on some other factor like as percent of production and their method and technology .In another table shows that the table land of agricultural production in below:

 

Table No :2 Total land holdings of respondents

 

 

Sl. No Per hectare of land Number of respondents Income rate   

1                 Below 30                                 1                      20000   

2                 Below 20                                 1                        8000   

3                 Below 10                                10                       4000   

4                 Below 5                                  18                      9000

 

 

In this above table shows that the maximum farmers have below 5 hector of land. Most profitable income is going into the farmers who have the less percent of land. It is because of their method, techniques and knowledge of production It does not mean the actual profit of a farmer because they invest more capital than the profit.

 

 

Table No 3:- Educational qualification of the respondents

 

Sl No Level of Education Number of farmer Percentage   

1          Graduate                      3                         10.0%   

2          12 th                             7                        23.3%   

3          10 th                             8                        26.6%   

4          Under 10                    12                        40.0%

 In this above table shows that, the educational level of the fermer. Highest number of the farmers are below in under 10th pass And lowest number are in graduate .

 

 

Findings and discussion

     Marketing problems of rural farmers, now it is a common phenomenon even he may be a marginal farmer or may be a big landlords or firm producer. In this study was based on 30 respondents of agricultural farmers whose mainly produced rice, tea and seasonal vegetables and they are selected in the specific area of Jorhat district under the Bolomajan gaon panchayat.

               The study is mainly based on farmers marketing problems, what kind of problems are they faced to selling their productive crops. This study was became successful to focusing the farmers marketing problems. This study included those farmers who have the experience of 5-10 years in this field. They said that the problems of their is mainly lack of good market and better prices in their production even though in the rice, tea, vegetable etc. They profitable by their occupation but not too much satisfied in with these. Because of the low percent of profit rather than high percent of hard work. And they are not more profitable to living standard of life. Among the farmers there are some farmers who have the more amount of land and hence their monthly and annual Income rate is also high. And in the same way there is also some farmers who have the sufficient land but the Income rate id low because of the low production and lack of marketing facilities. They also faced some problems in their day to day life. These problems are mainly lack of better educational facilities to their children, health care, Nutrition, lack of Housing facilities and also sanitary facility, drinking water facilities etc.

 In this Study, the farmers are said that the poor economic of there is because of some climate conditions by in which they are not capable to produce high quality and quantity production. And for the lower quality of production they are not getting proper prices. Another way, the climate condition more badly impact the growing crops and insufficient productions. Lack of water resources is most unfavorable for the season of tea, rice and seasonal products. They are failed to selling their seasonal product in a right time and hence later they also these products in a lower price.

Another way of lack of communication and information system the farmers are not knowing the actual price of a products. In this study were become successful and find out the main courses lack of communication these are kaccha road and transportation problems. They have not taken the newspaper, television, internet only on using the radio as a communication and information tool. Another way a single number of farmer used television as a informational tool. Another way there is a problem of lack of transportation system. For this problem, the farmers could not directly attain the market because of they selling products with a less price into the other person or agent. It also refers the farmers poor economic condition. The lack of transportation and for these, some poor farmers selling their crops directly to market by bicycle, By bicycle they could not carried many more goods into market. Many respondents said that they are not knowing the actual price of every products, this is because of illiteracy. There is a single number of respondents which has get higher education and maximum number of respondents are in lower level of education. The lack of education indirectly impact the farmers marketing problems because of these they could not taking proper idea and decion to how and where they sold their productive goods, and not to use proper method and technology in agriculture. Another way a number of respondents said that they have not getting the training. financing and seeds distribution from the government. It is the one kind of problems of the farmers to product higher rate of income.

 The respondents of these study. they said that though the government provide some chances and facilities to development of rural society. but this has no effectiveness to rural farmers. the loan facilities are not more beneficiaries for them.

 

Conclusion

 

 In this conclusion, we can say that even though the farmers of rural areas produce the number of goods. Crops but they faced the marketing problems. They could not find the proper rate of the output. In this globalization time these productive goods could not complete with other import goods, Illiteray lack of encoveragement and facilities also responsible for unit.In this study, we know about the farmers. It is almost important to reduce these kind of problems for agricultural growth in a nation specially in India it is most important because India fully dependent in agriculture and there is engaged a number of population marketing problems in these specific areas.

 

 

 

Reference:

 

1.Verma S.B. Singh U>P, Jiloka S>K> “Rural Devolopment Reforms” publish by Deep & Deep Publications, New Delhi, 2006”

2.Prasad C.S. “Agriculture and Rural Development in India since 1947.” Publish by New century publication, LG -7,Aakarshan Bhawan, 4754-57/23, Ansari Road, Daruaganj.

3.Gupt K>R. & Maite Prasenjit “Rural DEVELOPment in India. ISBN No 9788126908981 year of publishing 2008 concept publishing company.

4.Dr. Nath V “Rural Development and planning in India.” New Delhi 2008 ISBN 81-8069-336-6 


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